Table 1.

Adhesive structures on the bacterial cell surface and their assembly pathways

Assembly pathwayStructureAssembly gene productsOrganismDisease(s) associated with pilus expressionReference(s)
Chaperone-usher pathway Thick, rigid pili FGS chaperone/usher a
P piliPapD/PapC E. coli Pyelonephritis or cystitis 47, 48, 50
Prs piliPrsD/PrsC E. coli Cystitis 77,112
Type 1 piliFimC/FimD E. coli Cystitis 58, 93, 109
Salmonella sp.
Klebsiella pneumoniae
S piliSfaE/SfaF E. coli UTIb 84, 105
Newborn meningitis
F1C piliFocC/FocD E. coli Cystitis 96
Haemophilus influenzaefimbriaeHifB/HifC Haemophilus influenzae Otitis media 39, 118
Meningitis
H. influenzae biogroup aegyptius fimbriaeHafB/HafE H. influenzae Brazilian purpuric fever 95
Type 2 and 3 piliFimB/FimC Bordetella pertussis Whooping cough 75, 85, 121
MR/P piliMrpD/MrpC Proteus mirabilis Nosocomial UTI 5
PMF piliPmfC/PmfD P. mirabilis Nosocomial UTI 6
Long polar fimbriaeLpfB/LpfC Salmonella typhimurium Gastroenteritis 9
Pef piliPefD/PefC S. typhimurium Gastroenteritis 28
Ambient-temperature fimbriaeAftB/AftC P. mirabilis UTI 79, 80
987P fimbriaeFasB/FasD E. coli Diarrhea in piglets 15, 25
Thin, flexible pili
K99 piliFaeE/FaeD E. coli Neonatal diarrhea in calves, lambs, and piglets 7, 107
K88 piliFanE/FanD E. coli Neonatal diarrhea in piglets 7, 26
F17 piliF17D/F17papC E. coli Diarrhea 74
MR/K piliMrkB/MrkC K. pneumoniae Pneumonia 3, 34
REPEC fimbriaeRalE/RalD E. coli Diarrhea in rabbits 1
Atypical structures FGL chaperone/usher a
CS31A capsule-like proteinClpE/ClpD E. coli Diarrhea 35
Antigen CS6CssC/CssD E. coli Diarrhea65, 122
Myf fimbriaeMyfB/MyfC Yersinia enterocolitica Enterocolitis 54
pH 6 antigenPsaB/PsaC Yersinia pestis Plague 73
CS3 piliCS3-1/CS3-2 E. coli Diarrhea 57,72
Envelope antigen F1Caf1M/Caf1A Y. pestis Plague 32, 64
Nonfimbrial adhesins INfaE/NfaC E. coli UTI 2,36
Newborn meningitis
SEF14 fimbriaeSefB/SefC S. enteritidis Gastroenteritis 16, 86
Agregative adherence fimbriae IAggD/AggC E. coli Diarrhea 104
AFA-IIIAfaB/AfaC E. coli Pyelonephritis 33, 70
Extracellular nucleation-precipitation pathwayCurliCsgG/CsgE/CsgF E. coli S. enteritidis Sepsis 10, 11,17, 40, 41, 76, 94, 106
General secretion pathwayType 4 piliGeneral secretion apparatus Neisseriasp.Gonorrhea 4, 12, 23, 24, 31, 42,43, 44, 62, 83, 89, 91, 92, 99, 100,113
P. aeruginosa
V. cholerae Cholera
M. bovis
D. nodosus
Eikenella corrodens
Bundle-forming piliGeneral secretion apparatus E. coli Diarrhea 12, 21, 22, 108
Alternate chaperone pathwayCS1 piliCooB/CooC E. coli Diarrhea 102
CS2 piliCotB/CotC E. coli Diarrhea 30
CS4 pili E. coli Diarrhea 115
CS14 pili E. coli Diarrhea 81
CS17 pili E. coli Diarrhea 82
CS19 pili E. coli Diarrhea 38
CFA/I piliCfaA/CfaC E. coli Diarrhea 61
Cable type II pili B. cepacia Opportunistic infections in cystic fibrosis patients 101
  • a The chaperone is given before the slash, and the usher is given after the slash.

  • b UTI, urinary tract infection.