Table 1.

Adhesive structures on the bacterial cell surface and their assembly pathways

Assembly pathwayStructureAssembly gene productsOrganismDisease(s) associated with pilus expressionReference(s)
Chaperone-usher pathwayThick, rigid piliFGS chaperone/ushera
P piliPapD/PapCE. coliPyelonephritis or cystitis 47, 48, 50
Prs piliPrsD/PrsCE. coliCystitis77, 112
Type 1 piliFimC/FimDE. coliCystitis58, 93, 109
Salmonella sp.
Klebsiella pneumoniae
S piliSfaE/SfaFE. coliUTIb84, 105
Newborn meningitis
F1C piliFocC/FocDE. coliCystitis96
Haemophilus influenzaefimbriaeHifB/HifCHaemophilus influenzaeOtitis media39, 118
Meningitis
H. influenzae biogroup aegyptius fimbriaeHafB/HafEH. influenzaeBrazilian purpuric fever95
Type 2 and 3 piliFimB/FimCBordetella pertussisWhooping cough75, 85, 121
MR/P piliMrpD/MrpCProteus mirabilisNosocomial UTI5
PMF piliPmfC/PmfDP. mirabilisNosocomial UTI6
Long polar fimbriaeLpfB/LpfCSalmonella typhimuriumGastroenteritis9
Pef piliPefD/PefCS. typhimuriumGastroenteritis28
Ambient-temperature fimbriaeAftB/AftCP. mirabilisUTI79, 80
987P fimbriaeFasB/FasDE. coliDiarrhea in piglets15, 25
Thin, flexible pili
K99 piliFaeE/FaeDE. coliNeonatal diarrhea in calves, lambs, and piglets7, 107
K88 piliFanE/FanDE. coliNeonatal diarrhea in piglets7, 26
F17 piliF17D/F17papCE. coliDiarrhea74
MR/K piliMrkB/MrkCK. pneumoniaePneumonia3, 34
REPEC fimbriaeRalE/RalDE. coliDiarrhea in rabbits1
Atypical structuresFGL chaperone/ushera
CS31A capsule-like proteinClpE/ClpDE. coliDiarrhea35
Antigen CS6CssC/CssDE. coliDiarrhea65, 122
Myf fimbriaeMyfB/MyfCYersinia enterocoliticaEnterocolitis54
pH 6 antigenPsaB/PsaCYersinia pestisPlague73
CS3 piliCS3-1/CS3-2E. coliDiarrhea57, 72
Envelope antigen F1Caf1M/Caf1AY. pestisPlague32, 64
Nonfimbrial adhesins INfaE/NfaCE. coliUTI2, 36
Newborn meningitis
SEF14 fimbriaeSefB/SefCS. enteritidisGastroenteritis16, 86
Agregative adherence fimbriae IAggD/AggCE. coliDiarrhea104
AFA-IIIAfaB/AfaCE. coliPyelonephritis33, 70
Extracellular nucleation-precipitation pathwayCurliCsgG/CsgE/CsgFE. coliS. enteritidisSepsis10, 11, 17, 40, 41, 76, 94, 106
General secretion pathwayType 4 piliGeneral secretion apparatusNeisseriasp.Gonorrhea4, 12, 23, 24, 31, 42, 43, 44, 62, 83, 89, 91, 92, 99, 100, 113
P. aeruginosa
V. choleraeCholera
M. bovis
D. nodosus
Eikenella corrodens
Bundle-forming piliGeneral secretion apparatusE. coliDiarrhea12, 21, 22, 108
Alternate chaperone pathwayCS1 piliCooB/CooCE. coliDiarrhea102
CS2 piliCotB/CotCE. coliDiarrhea30
CS4 piliE. coliDiarrhea115
CS14 piliE. coliDiarrhea81
CS17 piliE. coliDiarrhea82
CS19 piliE. coliDiarrhea38
CFA/I piliCfaA/CfaCE. coliDiarrhea61
Cable type II piliB. cepaciaOpportunistic infections in cystic fibrosis patients101
  • a The chaperone is given before the slash, and the usher is given after the slash.

  • b UTI, urinary tract infection.