Table 5.

Summary of three E. coli expression profiles

Characteristic (no. of genes summed)Abundance (100 ppm) in:
Minimal mediumLB medium (exponential phase)
Exponential phaseTransition phase
Cell processes
 Cell division (26)110100100
 Chemotaxis and motility (12)14711
 Folding and ushering proteins (7)3261110
 Transport of large molecules: protein, peptide secretion (32)82101100
 Transport of small molecules
  Amino acids, amines (49)918168
  Anions (20)292823
  Carbohydrates, organic acids, alcohols (82)200160340
  Cations (52)1209876
  Nucleosides, purines, pyrimidines (6)10917
  Other (12)212712
Elements of external origin
 Laterally acquired240170230
  Phage-related functions/prophages (27)554265
  Plasmid-related functions (1)269
  Transposon-related functions (34)583538
Global functions
 Energy transfer, ATP proton motive force (9)7754150
 Global regulatory functions (51)176290180
Macromolecule metabolism
 Basic protein synthesis, and modification (6)474874
 Degradation of:
  DNA (23)383031
  RNA (11)291522
  Polysaccharides (3)634
  Proteins and peptides (61)8493110
 Synthesis and modification of:
  DNA (89)230190310
  Lipoprotein (11)415037
  Phospholipids (11)201521
  Polysaccharides (cytoplasmic) (6)15166
  Protein translation and modification (34)290300430
  RNA synthesis (27)100100150
 Macromolecules
  Glycoprotein
  Lipopolysaccharide (13)151218
  tRNA modification and charging (40)130130210
Metabolism of small molecules
 Amino acid biosynthesis (110)1209333
 Biosynthesis of cofactors, carriers (115)720690640
 Central intermediary metabolism
  2′-Deoxyribonucleotide metabolism (12)343232
  Amino sugars (10)121115
  Entner-Douderoff (3)436
  Gluconeogenesis (4)91221
  Glyoxylate bypass (5)767512
  Other metabolism of glucose (3)954
  Nonoxidative branch, pentose pathway (8)264343
  Nucleotide hydrolysis (2)113
  Nucleotide interconversions (13)413920
  Phosphorus compounds (17)323022
  Polyamine blosynthesis (8)161313
  Nucleoside and nucleotide salvage (18)373854
  Sugar-nucleotide synthesis, conversion (18)423448
  Sulfur metabolism (10)392510
  Pool, interconversion (46)120190210
 Degradation of small molecules
  Amines (9)161025
  Amino acids (17)221472
  Carbon compounds (90)140110250
  Fatty acids (10)201730
  Others (8)15218
 Energy metabolism, carbon
  Aerobic respiration (27)7758120
  Anaerobic respiration (80)7557110
  Electron transport (24)322448
  Fermentation (21)405044
  Glycolysis (18)130240150
  Oxidative branch, pentose pathway (2)
  Pyruvate dehydrogenase (6)464140
  TCA cycle (18)8912093
 Fatty acid biosynthesis: fatty acid and phosphatidic acid synthesis (23)7394150
 Nucleotide synthesis190130100
  Purine ribonucleotide synthesis (22)1107783
  Pyrimidine ribonucleotide biosynthesis (10)794918
Miscellaneous: not classified (109)220230250
ORFs: unknown proteins (1,324)3,5003,4002,600
Processes
 Adaptation
  Atypical conditions (16)1208374
  Osmotic (14)386326
 Protection responses
  Cell killing (3)533
  Detoxification (11)808397
  Drug or analog sensitivity (32)423138
Structural elements
 Cell envelope
  Murein sacculus, peptidoglycan (34)95120130
  Outer membrane constituents (17)230260200
  Cell exterior constituents (16)373962
 Surface polysaccharides and antigens: surface structures (57)755152
 Ribosome constituents
  Ribosomal and stable RNAs (3)
  Ribosomal proteins (64)7908601,500
  Ribosomal maturation and modification (6)561107
ORFs not listed (102)