Table 4.

Potential nonswarming mutant candidates

SpeciesMutant geneSwarming phenotype on:FunctionSource (reference[s])
Difco mediumEiken medium
S. enterica serovar Typhimurium fliL ++Flagellar biosynthesisR. Macnab (6, 74)
flgM ++Flagellar biosynthesisK. Hughes (31)
flgN ++Flagellar biosynthesisK. Hughes (35, 53)
pepQ ++AminopeptidaseC. Miller (6,66)
lon ++ProteaseSGSCa(33, 88)
sirA ++Response regulatorB. Ahmer (45)
ntrA Dpsb +Sigma-54S. Kustu (42, 46, 48)
fnr ++Anaerobic regulatorC. Miller (82)
rck ++AdhesinB. Ahmer (41)
CL79Dps+MudJ insertion in virulence plasmid, pSLTB. Ahmer (1)
pSLT(−)++Cured of pSLTB. Ahmer (79)
sdiA ++ luxRhomologueB. Ahmer (100)
luxS ++AI-2 synthaseThis study
Wild type++SGSC SL3770
waaLc +LPS biosynthesisSGSC SL3749
waaKd +LPS biosynthesisSGSC SL733
waaTe +LPS biosynthesisSGSC SL3750
waaGe ++LPS biosynthesisSGSC SL3769
waaFe +LPS biosynthesisSGSC SL3789
waaEe +LPS biosynthesisSGSC SL1102
waaPd +LPS biosynthesisSGSC SH7770
galEe ++LPS biosynthesisSGSC SL1306
E. coli lrp NTf +Transcriptional regulatorJ. Calvo (18, 40)
ompR NT+Response regulatorT. Silhavy (28)
rpoS NT+Sigma-SD. Siegele (55)
fur NT+Transcriptional regulatorS. Payne (37)
cadB NT+Lysine/cadaverine antiporterG. Bennett (64)
envZ NT+Sensor kinaseT. Silhavy (28)
tonB NT+Energy transducerK. Postle (72)
aer NT+O2chemoreceptorJ. Parkinson (10)
tsr-aer NT+Serine and O2chemoreceptorsB. Taylor (76)
kdpD NT+Sensor kinaseT. Mizuno (98)
mscL NT+Mechanosensitive channelC. Kung (89)
fim NT+Type 1 fimbraeI. Blomfield (14)
  • a SGSC, Salmonella Genetic Stock Center.

  • b Dps, defective in progressive swarming.

  • c LPS O-antigen synthesis.

  • d LPS core modification.

  • e LPS core synthesis.

  • f NT, not tested because E. coliK-12 strains swarm only on Eiken agar.