Table 4.

Potential nonswarming mutant candidates

SpeciesMutant geneSwarming phenotype on:FunctionSource (reference[s])
Difco mediumEiken medium
S. enterica serovar TyphimuriumfliL++Flagellar biosynthesisR. Macnab (6, 74)
flgM++Flagellar biosynthesisK. Hughes (31)
flgN++Flagellar biosynthesisK. Hughes (35, 53)
pepQ++AminopeptidaseC. Miller (6, 66)
lon++ProteaseSGSCa(33, 88)
sirA++Response regulatorB. Ahmer (45)
ntrADpsb+Sigma-54S. Kustu (42, 46, 48)
fnr++Anaerobic regulatorC. Miller (82)
rck++AdhesinB. Ahmer (41)
CL79Dps+MudJ insertion in virulence plasmid, pSLTB. Ahmer (1)
pSLT(−)++Cured of pSLTB. Ahmer (79)
sdiA++luxRhomologueB. Ahmer (100)
luxS++AI-2 synthaseThis study
Wild type++SGSC SL3770
waaLc+LPS biosynthesisSGSC SL3749
waaKd+LPS biosynthesisSGSC SL733
waaTe+LPS biosynthesisSGSC SL3750
waaGe++LPS biosynthesisSGSC SL3769
waaFe+LPS biosynthesisSGSC SL3789
waaEe+LPS biosynthesisSGSC SL1102
waaPd+LPS biosynthesisSGSC SH7770
galEe++LPS biosynthesisSGSC SL1306
E. colilrpNTf+Transcriptional regulatorJ. Calvo (18, 40)
ompRNT+Response regulatorT. Silhavy (28)
rpoSNT+Sigma-SD. Siegele (55)
furNT+Transcriptional regulatorS. Payne (37)
cadBNT+Lysine/cadaverine antiporterG. Bennett (64)
envZNT+Sensor kinaseT. Silhavy (28)
tonBNT+Energy transducerK. Postle (72)
aerNT+O2chemoreceptorJ. Parkinson (10)
tsr-aerNT+Serine and O2chemoreceptorsB. Taylor (76)
kdpDNT+Sensor kinaseT. Mizuno (98)
mscLNT+Mechanosensitive channelC. Kung (89)
fimNT+Type 1 fimbraeI. Blomfield (14)
  • a SGSC, Salmonella Genetic Stock Center.

  • b Dps, defective in progressive swarming.

  • c LPS O-antigen synthesis.

  • d LPS core modification.

  • e LPS core synthesis.

  • f NT, not tested because E. coliK-12 strains swarm only on Eiken agar.