TABLE 1.

Rate of phenotypic switching in IS256-positive and IS256-negative clinical isolates of S. epidermidis

S. epidermidis strainRelevant characteristic(s)IS256Avg ON-to-OFF switching rate (SD)aSource or reference
RP62ABiofilm-positive, blood culture isolate+5.5 (1.4) × 10−5ATCC 35984b
CSF24047Biofilm-positive, blood culture isolate (Beaumont Hospital, Dublin, Ireland)+5.3 (2.5) × 10−5This study
13652Biofilm-positive, blood culture isolate (Duke University, Durham, NC.)+4.1 (1.6) × 10−5Vance Fowler, Duke University
17174Biofilm-positive, blood culture isolate (Duke University, Durham, NC.)+4.4 (2.3) × 10−5Vance Fowler, Duke University
8621Biofilm-positive, blood culture isolate (Duke University, Durham, NC.)+3.0 (0.5) × 10−5Vance Fowler, Duke University
SE56Biofilm-positive, blood culture isolate (Medical College of Virginia, Richmond, Va.)+3.2 (1.0) × 10−5Paul Fey, University of Nebraska
CSF41498Biofilm-positive, cerebrospinal fluid isolate0.17 (0.02) × 10−511
SE5Biofilm-positive, blood culture isolate (Medical College of Virginia, Richmond, Va.)0.15 (0.06) × 10−5Paul Fey, University of Nebraska (53)
1457Biofilm-positive, blood culture isolate (Hamburg, Germany)1.3 (0.6) × 10−5D. Mack, Hamburg, Germany
BC78032Biofilm-positive, blood culture isolate (Beaumont Hospital, Dublin, Ireland)0.87 (0.55) × 10−5This study
BC70837Biofilm-positive, blood culture isolate (Beaumont Hospital, Dublin, Ireland)0.76 (0.23) × 10−5This study
14765Biofilm-positive, blood culture isolate (Duke University, Durham, NC.)1.0 (0.7) × 10−5Vance Fowler, Duke University
  • a That is, the rate of biofilm-positive to biofilm-negative switching per CFU per generation. Assays were performed on at least three independent occasions for each strain. Average values and standard deviations are shown.

  • b ATCC, American Type Culture Collection.