TABLE 1

Thermodynamic parameters determined by ITC measurementsa

SubstrateKd (μM)ΔH (kcal/mol)TΔS (kcal/mol)
TMAO1.6 ± 0.1−4.0 ± 0.1−3.9 ± 0.1
Betaine
Choline3.8 ± 0.1−6.6 ± 0.5−0.8 ± 0.5
Carnitine
  • a ΔH, change in enthalpy; T, temperature; ΔS, change in entropy. −, little substrate-binding affinity was detected under the experimental conditions.