TABLE 1.

C. perfringens strains and plasmids used in this study

Strain or plasmidIsolation source or phenotypeSource or reference
C. perfringens strains
    Human isolates
        Strain 13Gas gangrene36
        KO13ccpA mutant derivative of strain 13This study
        NCTC8239Food poisoning7
        NCTC10239Food poisoning7
        SM101Food poisoning49
        191-10Food poisoning38
        F4406Sporadic diarrhea7
        F4969Sporadic diarrhea7
        F5603Sporadic diarrhea7
        B11Antibiotic-associated diarrhea7
        B41Antibiotic-associated diarrhea7
        NB16Antibiotic-associated diarrhea7
    Animal isolates
        JGS1807Diarrheic pig45
        JGS1818Diarrheic pig45
        294442Diarrheic dogR. Carman
        317206Diarrheic dogR. Carman
        AHT327Diarrheic horse44
        AHT2911Diarrheic horse44
Plasmids
    pMRS127sigK-gusA in pJIR75130
    pEJZ2pilT promoter fused with gusA in pMRS127This study
    pPilDgus-127pilD promoter fused with gusA in pMRS127This study
    KO2This study
    pJIR750C. perfringens-E. coli shuttle vector3
    pIH100This study