TABLE 2.

Major virulence-related genes in strains Newman, MW2, and N315 and their locationsa

TypeStrain
NewmanMW2N315
LocusGeneIslandLocusGeneIslandLocusGeneIsland
Toxins
    EnterotoxinNWMN1883seaφNM3MW1889seaφSa3mwSA1761sepφSa3n
MW1938sek2φSa3mwSA1817sec3νSa4
MW1937seqφSa3mwSA1816selνSa4
MW0759sec4νSa3SA1642segνSaβ
MW0760sel2νSa3SA1643senνSaβ
MW0051sehSA1646seiνSaβ
SA1647semνSaβ
SA1648seoνSaβ
    ExotoxinNWMN0388set1nmνSaαMW0382set16νSaαSA0382set6νSaα
NWMN0389set2nmνSaαMW0383set17νSaαSA0383set7νSaα
NWMN0390set3nmνSaαMW0384set18νSaαSA0384set8νSaα
NWMN0391set4nmνSaαMW0385set19νSaαSA0385set9νSaα
NWMN0392set5nmνSaαMW0386set20νSaαSA0386set10νSaα
NWMN0393set6nmνSaαMW0387set21νSaαSA0387set11νSaα
NWMN0394set7nmνSaαMW0388set22νSaαSA0388set12νSaα
NWMN0395set8nmνSaαMW0389set23νSaαSA0389set13νSaα
NWMN0396set9nmνSaαMW0390set24νSaαSA0390set14νSaα
NWMN0397set10nmνSaαMW0391set25νSaαSA0393set15νSaα
NWMN0400set11nmνSaαMW0394set26νSaα
    Toxic shock syndrome toxinSA1819tstνSa4
    Exfoliative toxinNWMN1082etaνSaγMW1054etaνSaγSA1016etaνSaγ
    Alpha-hemolysinNWMN1073hlyνSaγMW0955hlyνSaγSA1007hlyνSaγ
    Beta-hemolysinTruncatedhlbφNM3TruncatedhlbφSa3mwTruncatedhlbφSa3n
    Delta-hemolysinNWMN1942hldMW1959hldSAS065hld
    Gamma-hemolysinNWMN2318hlgAMW2342hlgASA2207hlgA
        componentNWMN2319hlgCMW2343hlgCSA2208hlgC
NWMN2320hlgBMW2344hlgBSA2209hlgB
    LukDE leukocidinNWMN1717lukDνSaβMW1767lukDνSaβSA1637lukDνSaβ
        componentNWMN1718lukEνSaβMW1768lukEνSaβSA1638lukEνSaβ
    Panton-Valentine leukcidinMW1379lukS-PVφSa2mw
        componentMW1378lukF-PVφSa2mw
Exoenzymes
    Serine proteaseNWMN1706splAνSaβMW1755splAνSaβSA1631splAνSaβ
NWMN1705splBνSaβMW1754splBνSaβSA1630splBνSaβ
NWMN1704splCνSaβMW1753splCνSaβSA1629splCνSaβ
NWMN1703splDνSaβMW1752splFνSaβSA1628splDνSaβ
NWMN1702splEνSaβSA1627splFνSaβ
NWMN1701splFνSaβ
NWMN0892htrAMW0903htrASA0879htrA
    Serine V8 proteaseNWMN0918sspAMW0932sspASA0901sspA
    Cysteine proteaseNWMN0917sspBMW0931sspBSA0900sspB
NWMN0916sspCMW0930sspCSA0899sspC
    LipaseTruncatedggehφNM4MW0297gehSA0309geh
NWMN2569lipMW2590lipSA2463lip
    Lipase/esteraseNWMN0624lipAMW0617lipASA0610lipA
    Hyaluronate lyaseNWMN2106hysAMW2129hysASA2003hysA
    ThermonucleaseNWMN1236nucMW1211nucSA1160nuc
Immunomodulators
    StaphylokinaseNWMN1880sakφNM3MW1885sakφSa3mwSA1758sakφSa3n
    Chemotaxis inhibiting proteinNWMN1877chpφNM3SA1755chpφSa3n
    Complement inhibitorNWMN1876scnφNM3MW1884scnφSa3mwSA1754scnφSa3n
    Immunoglobulin G binding protein ANWMN0055spaMW0084spaSA0107spa
    Immunoglobulin G binding protein sbiNWMN2317sbiMW2341sbiSA2206sbi
Adhesins
    Collagen-binding proteinMW2612cna
    Fibronectin-binding proteinNWMN2399fnbAbMW2421fnbASA2291fnbA
NWMN2397fnbBbMW2420fnbBSA2290fnbB
    SD-rich fibrinogen-bindingNWMN0756clfAMW0764clfASA0742clfA
        proteinNWMN2529clfBMW2551clfBSA2423clfB
NWMN0523sdrCMW0516sdrCSA0519sdrC
NWMN0524sdrDMW0517sdrDSA0520sdrD
NWMN0525sdrEMW0518sdrESA0521sdrE
NWMN1940sdrHMW1956sdrHSA1839sdrH
    Elastin-binding proteinNWMN1389ebpSMW1369ebpSSA1312ebpS
Other virulence-related phage proteinsc
    Functionally unknown proteinANWMN0270dφNM4
    Functionally unknown proteinBNWMN0273φNM4
    Functionally unknown proteinCNWMN0280φNM4MW1420φSa2mwSA1786φSa3n
    Functionally unknown proteinNWMN0284φNM4
    Functionally unknown proteinNWMN0995φNM2
    Functionally unknown proteinBNWMN1001φNM2
    Functionally unknown proteinCNWMN1008φNM2
    Functionally unknown proteinCNWMN1800φNM1
    Functionally unknown proteinBNWMN1807φNM1
    Functionally unknown proteinANWMN1809eφNM1
    Functionally unknown proteinCNWMN1905fφNM3
    Functionally unknown proteinNWMN1912φNM3MW1924φSa3mwSA1795φSa3n
  • a Among virulence-related genes shown as red bars in Fig. 1, those involved in capsular polysaccharide biosynthesis and iron uptake are not listed.

  • b The C terminus, including cell wall anchoring signal, is truncated, and therefore the product is nonfunctional (11).

  • c Identified by bursa aurealis mutagenesis of strain Newman followed by nematode killing assay employing the mutants (4). Unknown proteins with the same superscript capital letter are paralogs.

  • d Located between NWMN0270 and NWMN0271.

  • e Located between NWMN1809 and NWMN1810.

  • f Located between NWMN1905 and NWMN1906.

  • g Truncated due to insertion of the indicated prophage.