Summary of the consensus promoter sequences in different bacterial promotersa

Genome taxonomySpecies−35 sequenceSpacing (bp)−10 sequenceReference
AlphaproteobacteriaSinorhizobium melilotiTTGACW∼17TATAAT35
C. crescentusTTGACGS10-14GCTANAWC36
BetaproteobacteriaNeisseria sp.TTGACA∼17TATAAT8
GammaproteobacteriaA. pleuropneumoniaeTTRAA13-16TATAAT17
E. coliTTGACA17 ± 1TATAAT21
EpsilonproteobacteriaCampylobacter jejuniTTTAAGT15-19TATAAT58
FirmicutesB. subtilisTTGACA17 ± 1TATAAT22
ActinobacteriaStreptomyces sp.TTGACR16-18TASRRT50
Corynebacterium glutamicumTTGANA16-18TANAAT44
Mycobacterium paratuberculosisTGMCGT16-20CGGCCS3
BacteroidetesB. fragilisTTTG19-21TANNTTTG4
Flavobacterium sp.TTG17-23TANNTTTG12
  • a Promoter sequences were aligned by using the −35 and −10 regions. Consensus nucleotides are defined as present at a given position in more than 50% of the sequences. An M indicated an A or a C base, an N indicated any nucleotide, an R indicates A or G, an S indicates C or G, and a W indicates A or C. The spacer lengths of the housekeeping gene promoters in the representative strains were estimated from the literature.