TABLE 1.

Bacterial strains and plasmids used in this study

Strain or plasmidDescriptionaReference or source
C. perfringens strains
    13Wild-type strain (type A)14
    TS133Strain 13 virR::Tetr24
    TS140Strain 13 Δvrr Emr28
    TS190Strain 13 virT::EmrThis study
E. coli DH5αsupE44 ΔlacU169 (φ80 lacZΔM15) hsdR17 recA1 endA1 gyrA96 thi-1 relA1Takara Bio Inc.
Plasmids
    pBT405pJIR418 Ω(PstI 4.3-kb strain 13 genomic library) (virR+ virS+ complementation vector), AmprShimizu, unpublished data
    pJIR418E. coli-C. perfringens shuttle vector, Cmr Emr29
    pSB1031pJIR418 Ω(PCR-amplified 637-bp fragment) (vrr+ complementation vector)4
    pTS930pJIR418 Ω(PCR-amplified 1,400-bp fragment) (virT+ complementation vector)This study
    pTS931pJIR418 Ω(PCR-amplified 539-bp fragment) (virU+ complementation vector)This study
    pTS932pTS930 (585T→A)This study
    pTS933pTS931 (182A→T)This study
    pTS934pUC118 Ω(PCR-amplified 334-bp fragment) (virT+ suicide vector), EmrThis study
    pTS935pTS930 (1-bp frameshift at position 33)This study
    pTS936pTS931 (1-bp frameshift at position 15)This study
    pUC19Cloning vector, Ampr lacZ′ pMB 1 oriTakara Bio Inc.
    pUC118Cloning vector, Ampr lacZ′ pMB 1 oriTakara Bio Inc.
  • a Tetr, resistance to tetracycline; Emr, resistance to erythromycin, Cmr, resistance to chloramphenicol; Ampr, resistance to ampicillin.