Table 1

Overview of environmental cues known to modulate attachment

Environmental stimulusSpeciesAttachmentaRegulatory system and mechanism of adhesion modulationbReference
Nutrient availability
    Acetate metabolism carbon sourcesE. coli+24, 131
    Amino acid starvationE. coli+BarE, sRNAs csrB and csrC72
    Mannose, N-acetyl-d-galactosamineE. coli78
    MonosaccharidesP. aeruginosa78, 102
V. cholerae+PTS, VPS polysaccharide76
    Ca2+V. cholerae+O-antigen polysaccharide76, 77
    Mg2+ (low)P. aeruginosa+RetS; upregulation of rsmYZ and pel and psl115
    Phosphate (high)Sinorhizobium meliloti+EPS I succinoglycan103
    Phosphate limitationP. aureofaciensPhoPQ; inactivation of Pho regulon111
P. fluorescensRapA/LapD; loss of cell surface LapA adhesin109, 118, 119
    Phosphate starvationS. meliloti+PhoBR, EPS II galactoglucan7, 168
    IronP. aeruginosa+141
P. aeruginosa11
B. cenocepacia11
    Iron limitationAcinetobacter baumannii+Chaperone-usher pilus assembly72, 153
P. putidaTonB108
Host factors
    Epinephrine, norepinephrineE. coli+8
    IndoleE. coliSdiA; motility8, 90
V. cholerae+VPS polysaccharide114
    MucinP. aeruginosa+88
H. pylori25
Osmolarity
    HighE. coliCpxAR; repression of csgD (curli)74
    High Na+, alkaline pHE. coli+NhaR, poly-β-1,6-N-acetyl-d-glucosamine (PGA) adhesin51
Others
    Surface contactC. crescentus+PleD, polar holdfast adhesin93, 94
A. biprosthecum+Polar holdfast adhesin94
A. tumefaciens+Polar holdfast adhesin94
P. aeruginosa+155, 156
E. coli+Cpx and NlpE, P pili40, 126
    Blue lightC. crescentus+LovKR132
  • a +, positive effect on attachment; −, negative effect on attachment.

  • b PTS, phosphoenolpyruvate phosphotransferase system.