Table 1

Bacterial strains and plasmids used in this study

Strain/plasmid/primerRelevant characteristics or sequenceSource or reference
Strains
    E. coli DH10BF mcrAΔ mrr-hsdRMS mcrBC ϕ80dlacZΔM15 lacX74 deoR recA1 araD139Δ ara leu7697 galU galKΔrpsL endA1 nupGGibco/BRL
    C. perfringens HN13Strain 13, ΔgalKT15
        HLL50HN13, ΔCPE0278 (sagA)
    C. difficile JIR8094
Plasmids
    pGEM-T EasyPCR cloning vector, ampicillin resistancePromega
    pBADC913
    pJIR145713
    pMTL8215114
    pKRAHIContains bgaR-PbgaL, chloramphenicol resistance12
    pCM-GALKContains a C. beijerinckii galK gene under the control of a ferredoxin promoter from C. perfringens15
    pBSII KS+Ampicillin resistanceFermentas
    pBL79Contains a Himar1 C9 transposase under a tcdA promoter, erythromycin and chloramphenicol resistanceThis study
    pHLL7Contains PbgaL in pGEM-T EasyThis study
    pHLL9Replaced tcdA promoter with PbgaL in pBL79This study
    pHLL23galK with its ferredoxin promoter in pGEM-T EasyThis study
    pHLL24Contains a Himar1 C9 transposase under PbgaL and the galK gene from pCM-GALK, erythromycin and chloramphenicol resistanceThis study
    pHLL42The cpe0278 gene under the control of the lactose-inducible promoter in pKRAH1This study
    pHLL49Contains the 5′ and 3′ flanking regions of CPE0278 (sagA)This study