TABLE 1

Studies using teleosts as model organisms have made major contributions to understanding host-microbe interactions

ContributionReference(s)
Contributions of microbiota to host development
    Stimulation of intestinal epithelial cell proliferation through MyD88 signaling pathways1315
    Promotion of a shift in epithelial glycan expression14
    Stimulation of recruitment of immune cells13, 16
    Promotion of gut development14
    Maintenance of normal levels of secretory cells and peristaltic contractions14, 16
    Aiding in host growth and development15, 17, 18
Process of gut colonization
    Bacterial populations not uniformly distributed along gut12
    Establishment of bacteria during development13, 14, 56
    Quantification of bacterial population dynamics in a living host65
Gene-environment interactions
    Core gut microbiota20, 80
    Taxa that deviate from neutral patterns are more likely adapted to, and selected by, host environment63
    Microbiota more strongly driven by differences in host genotype than environment85
    Diet and host genetics influence on microbiota18, 86, 98
    Microbiota influenced more by host developmental stage than geography90
    Sex influences magnitude of relationship to diet86
    Temporal, spatial, and interindividual variation20, 55, 91, 99
    Seasonal variation in microbiota92, 93
Immune system-microbiota interactions
    Variation in strength of inflammatory response to microbes in genetically divergent populations80
    Correlations between MHC class II alleles and microbiota100
    Microbiota-induced neutrophil recruitment81
Effects of antimicrobials: low levels of triclosan alter microbial community structure97